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Identity and difference

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The dialectical relation is already seen in the differential calculus, where dx is infinitely small, but yet is effective and does everything.
   - Engels

Who developed the Theory of Relativity?

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There are many claims by scientists and science historians that Special Theory of Relativity was developed by Poincare and Lorentz and not by Einstein. Last century it was Whittaker who disliked Einstein and emphasized Poincare and Lorentz role in developing special theory of relativity. C. K. Raju's blog claims that Einstein copied from Poincare and Hilbert. His blog is full of moral appeals and personal attacks on Einstein. He claims Special theory of relativity and General theory of relativity were not developed by Einstein. This is a paragraph from Smilga's book "Relativity and Man" which focuses on exactly the same point and highlights why Einstein and not Poincare or Lorentz, developed Special Theory of Relativity. Through this debate we will also like to explian what is Theory of relativity with a philosophical viewpoint. 

"The theory of relativity was developed by Einstein, and not Poincare (An interesting fact: Poincare's paper went to press only th…

Response to Anand Teltumbde: To the Self-proclaimed Teachers and Preachers

Abhinav Anand Teltumbde has announced his judgement about us (http://sanhati.com/articles/6366/). He has called us “self-obsessed Marxists” with “frozen mind”. What can we say? As he himself admits, his stay was of a few hours and in that short time span he was able to evaluate us conclusively and then declare his judgement. However, during that same short stay, we too, were able to make some impressions about Mr. Teltumbde. We shall start with some examples and then we shall proceed to a parawise reply of Mr. Teltumbde’s article. Of Self-obsession and Similar Diseases… 1. In his first statement during the Chandigarh seminar, Mr. Teltumbde spoke for almost 1 hour. In that long speech, he mentioned his own name at least 3 or 4 times. He began with claiming, “Ambedkarites say that Anand Teltumbde is a Marxist and Marxists say that Anand Teltumbde is an Ambedkarite”! At one point, he says, “I don’t like people who immediately agree with me”; at another, “I saw a problem of mathem…

Artificial Intelligence: Artificial and Antihuman Hypothesis!

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In 1997, Garry Kasparov a Russian grand chess master and world chess champion was defeated by IBM's super computer named "deep blue" however Garry also defeated the chess machine in a few games. This defeat was projected as if a consciousness superior to man's consciousness has been developed. for this game deep blue used to find and analyse 200 million moves per second,despite this Garry was able to beat the computer in a few games. what are the implications of Kasparov losing to a computer? Are computers going to replace humans? The Newsweek magazine's cover story hailed this match as "the brain's last stand". Thus  Artificial intelligence was said to have ushered as a science that would change the face of the world as we know it. Artificial intelligence is one of the most well researched areas in science and technology in almost every university in the world.But the way this subject is taught is incorrect. Artificial intelligence and artificial …

कृत्रिम चेतना: एक कृत्रिम और मानवद्रोही परिकल्पना

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1997 में एक सुपर कम्प्यूटर ‘डीप ब्लू’ ने शतरंज के दिग्गज खिलाड़ी और विश्व विजेता गैरी कास्परोव को हरा दिया था, हालाँकि कास्पारोव ने भी इसे हराया था। इस हार को इस तरह पेश किया गया कि जैसे मनुष्य की चेतना से उच्च स्तर की चेतना विकसित हो गयी है। यह कम्प्यूटर इस खेल के लिए हर सेकण्ड में 2000 लाख चालों को ढूँढता था। इसके बावजूद गैरी कास्परोव ने उसे कुछ गेमों में हरा दिया था। कास्परोव की हार के मायने क्या हैं? क्या कम्प्यूटर इंसान की जगह ले लेगा? न्यूज़वीक पत्रिका ने इस मैच को ”दिमाग की आखिरी हार” करार दिया। और इस तरह कृत्रिम चेतना के विषय का पदार्पण विश्व को बदल डालने वाले विज्ञान के रूप में हो चुका था। लगभग हर बड़े विश्वविद्यालय में इस विषय पर शोध हो रहा है। परन्तु यह विषय जिस तरह पढ़ाया जाता है वह ग़लत है। आर्टिफिशियल इण्टेलिजेंस, कृत्रिम चेतना, कृत्रिम बुद्धिमता शब्द से असल में उम्मीद लगायी जाती है कि यह इंसान के सभी कार्य कर सकता है व उसे उसके हर कार्यक्षेत्र से हटा देगा। सिमोन, जिन्हें 1978 का अर्थनीति का नोबल प्राइज़ मिला था, का कहना था कि ‘आर्टिफिशिअल इण्टेलिजेंस मनुष्…